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Typicality Effect

Page history last edited by Michael Saunders 7 years, 11 months ago

The typicality effect derives from Eleanor Rocsh's prototype approach.  The typicality effect states that individuals respond more quickly to typical examples of a category than they would to examples that are considered atypical.  For example, when asked to name a bird an individual is much more likely to respond with robin instead of penguin. 

  • Also, if asked, "Is this a bird?"


  • It would take the individual longer to respond "yes" to the question when shown a penguin because it is less typical of the bird category.


When testing the reaction time of individuals dealing with sentence verification, individuals were faster to determine a sentence to be true or false for typical items than atypical.  Individuals also agreed on typical instances and disagreed on atypical.  According to the typicality effect, typical examples are categorized fasted compared to atypical examples. Typical examples also lead to better priming.  Typicality effects are predicted by both the prototype approach and the exemplar approach. 



Helpful Links:


          This site is a journal article about the testing of the young, the elderly, patients with Broca's aphasia and patients with Wernicke's aphasia and their difficulties with                   atypical items compared to typical items.

          A research article concerning the generality of typicality effects on preference and comparison.

          Offers the definition of the typicality effect on learning.

          Answers the question about what is typical of the typicality effect in category-based induction.

          Discusses the prototype and exemplar theories concerning typicality effects.

          The typicality effect expressed in sentence verification.

          Research article on typicality effects in face and object perception.

          The typicality effect concerning the prototype approach.

          Research article on childhood hearing loss and its effects on the semantic memory and typicality effects.

          Thesis on training structure, naming and typicality effects in equivalence to class formation.



This page was developed by Michael Saunders.




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