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Dual Coding

Page history last edited by Nicholas Lyle 11 years, 5 months ago

Duel-Coding Theory




     This theory states that there are two ways of processing and developing mental information, one through verbal thoughts and another through visual imagery.  This theory was developed in 1971 by Allan Paivio.  He used two different types of mental aids, one with visual images and another with text in order to facilitate learning with certain patients.  One can think of both the image of a dog, and the word dog, and how it would be used in communication.  This would also help in memory retrieval by offering redundant systems in order to help with memory retrieval.  However, there are limitations to this theory.  For example, this is only valid when patients are required to make comparisons with how concepts are related.  Also, there is inconclusive evidence on whether or not imagery and verbal cues are the only way things are remembered in the brain. Thus, this may not encompass all the ways of remembering.


There are two types of coding information in the Dual coding theory:


1. Analog Coding- this is used for the process of imagining images.  These images retain most of the defining features of the stimuli or whatever is being imagined


2. Symbolic Coding- This is used for the mental representation of words.  this represents symbolic or conceptual information.  They form symbols that only have meaning in your mind, such as "x" being a variable in a math equation. 



(Picture vs. Text)





There are three types of processing identified in dual encoding:


  1.  REPRESENTATIONAL- This is a direct activation of the visual or verbal cognition.
  2.  REFERENTIAL- This is when a verbal system activates the nonverbal system or the nonverbal system activates the verbal system.
  3.  ASSOCIATION- When the verbal system activates the verbal system, or the nonverbal activates the nonverbal.









1.What Is Priming?-  this helps understand retrieval of memories or information that comes from the mind, and what can activate it



2. The Visual (Spatial) Learning Style-  this helps one understand how visual learning develops and can be created



3.The Emergence of Symbols: Cognition and Communication in Infancy (Language, Thought, and Culture) [Hardcover]-  this is a useful book that helps explain how symbols develop during infancy, and helps explain one of the primary points of cognition, which is symbolism



4. Learning Disabilities: There is a Cure  Author: Addie Cusimano, M.ED. Book Preview of Chapter 3: Visual Memory and Beyond- this ties in one of the major aspects of memory can be a imiting factor for many with learning disabilities.


5. Allan Paivio 1941 - Dual Coding Theory- this helps explain the life of the man behind the theory of dual encoding


6.Teaching in a Multimedia Computer Environment: A Study of the Effects of Learning Style, Gender, and Math Achievement-  this is another practical application of the dual code theory, where it applies numerous characteristics in a multimedia setting



7. Dual Code Theory-  this is a very brief video that helps sum up how dual code theory works in about 40 seconds!



8.What is Dual Coding Theory?- this is a video that helps explain how dual encoding works with a video medium, and ties it in with cognitive load



9.This provides a quick and concise way of describing some ways that dual encoding is applied, and a brief summary of the theory.



10. Dual coding and bilingual memory-  this helps tie in dual encoding to how it effects learning a new language, or how the cognitive processes differ with bilinguals



Created by: Nicholas Lyle

Disclaimer: To my knowledge, all of the information and images presented on this web page are public information. If there are any concerns regarding copyright violations, then please contact me via email: 10702101@live.mercer.edu.


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