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Emotion, Mood, and Memory

Page history last edited by Maria 10 years, 5 months ago








Memory is where we encode, store, and retrieve. Encoding is when you take the information you received and make it into something that is usable. Storing is putting away the information for later use. Retrieval is used when we have to remember this information and actually use it. Although there are many different types of memory, there are two MAIN types of memory: short-term memory (working memory) and long-term memory. Short-term memory is the information that we are thinking about at this very moment. This is also referred to as the conscious mind. Information is only in your short-term memory for approximately 20-30 seconds. On the other hand, long-term memory is a continuation of stored memory over a long period of time. In long-term memory, information is sometimes easy to recall while sometimes its much more difficult.



                                                                                    Memory & Emotion




Psychologist define emotions as reactions to specific stimuli. Studies have demonstrated that emotion does affect memory in different ways by age and gender with encoding and retrieval of information. Also, over time, pleasant memories do not fade as fast as unpleasant memories for people without depressive tendencies. Emotion can distort memory, especially if there is a negative emotion associated with a memory. In general, we remember the better stimuli  more accurately than any other stimuli that we are exposed to. According to the Pollyanna Principle, pleasant items are processed more efficiently than less pleasant items. It was also proven that there was a more accurate recall for neutral stimuli if it was associated with something positive and non- violent. People tend to show a more positive attitude towards past events after a period of time.

The amygdala is located in the brain that shows activity when memory is activated. This helps us remember emotional memories as well. The more emotional a situation is, the more activity there is in the amygdala.



  Memory & Mood  






In psychology, mood is characterized as being a more general and longer-lasting experience than emotion. An aspect of mood and memory is mood congruence. Mood congruence states that memory is better when the material to be remembered is congruent with the person’s current mood. Another feature of mood and memory is mood-dependent memory which states that you are more likely to remember material if your current mood matches the mood you were in when you first learned the material to be remembered. This focuses on the mood during encoding matching the mood during recall. Mood-dependent is more likely to occur if the stimulus material involves real-life events and when the mood is intense. Unlike emotion, mood-dependency is strong regardless if the mood is negative or positive.

If you were to test a group of sad and happy individuals by giving them a list of negative and positive words, it is proven that the sad ones would remember more negative words while the happy ones would remember positives words.  





1. Reliability of Memory 

     -This article explains how emotions can distort memory.

2. Affect of Mood and Emotion

     -This article explains the different effects that mood and emotion have on memory.                     

3. Brain Structure Video

     -This video demonstration what structures in the brain are affected by emotion.

4. Stress and Memory-

     -This video displays how a stressful mood can have a negative effect on memory. 

5. Interaction of Regions in the Brain

     - This article describes the interactions of the amygdala and hippocampus during emotional situations.
6. Mood at Different Ages

     - This article explains how mood effects the memory of older and younger people differently.
7. Emotion at Different Ages

     - This article describes how emotion effects memory differently in younger people than older people.

8. Gender, Emotion, & Memory

     - This article describes the difference between men and women an storing information from emotional events.

9. Emotional Memory in Women

     - This website describes how the hippocampus and amygdala play a successful role in storing and retrieving emotional memories.  

10. Events  and Memory

     - Article describes the different effect of negative and positive emotions and the intensity if emotion associated with events.

11. Intense Emotions

     - This article discusses how remembering an event can trigger certain emotions to be activated.  

12. Emotions Make Memory Last

     - On this website, they talked about how the brain stores information that helps in distinguishing emotions.

13. Retrieval of Emotional Memory

     - An article talking about how the amygdala and other parts of the brain play a part in retrieving emotional information.

14. The Effects of Emotion

     - A study was done looking at students with different emotions and how they reacted to certain words or situations.

15. The Emotional Brain

     - A short piece explaining how emotional information and factual information is different.

16. Center of Emotion and Memory

     - A video talking about the different parts of the brain that have a contribution to emotions such as aggression.

17. Being in a Good Mood

     - An article about a professor who thinks that being in a good mood could actually lead to the likelihood of forgetting certain things.

18. Clouding Memory

     - If you are participating in a study while in a good or bad mood,then you will rate the experience depending on what you were on the day of the study 

19. Be in a Better Mood

     - A page about how older adults can improve their memory if they fixed their moods.

20. Brain Influences Emotions    

    - A page about five ways that your brain influences your memory and how the brain perceives emotions.                       



This page was developed by: Gwendolyn Harris 

Continued to be developed by: Maria Philip

 ***To my knowledge, all images used are not under copyright. Please contact me at gwenharris8907@gmail OR mariaphilip11@yahoo.com if any of these images are inappropriately used***

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